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  • Writer's pictureMatthew Meleg

Japan India France - Three Cultures that have Influenced my Work

Updated: Feb 6


Olfactory practices offer insights into how societies engage with and understand their connections to the natural, social, and spiritual worlds. In this very short blog post, I lightly skim the distinct yet interconnected realms of Japanese, Indian, and French perfumery, each embodying a unique approach to scent.



Japanese Olfactory Culture: Subtlety, Nature, and Spirituality


In Japan, scent culture is deeply intertwined with Shinto and Buddhist philosophies, giving rise to the art of Kodo, or the "way of fragrance," since the 15th century.


Kodo emphasizes the meditative appreciation of incense, particularly agarwood or 'jinko,' which plays a central role. Agarwood's warm, sweet, and leathery scent captures the Japanese aesthetic of wabi-sabi, finding beauty in imperfection and transience. The Kodo ceremony, where participants reflect upon the subtle variations of agarwood's fragrance, exemplifies this meditative engagement with scent.


Above: Kodo, Japanese Incense Ceremony



Indian Olfactory Culture: Religious Rituals and Opulence

Above: Kannauj India


In contrast, India's perfumery tradition intertwines scent with religious and social rituals dating back thousands of years.


Ittar or attar, traditional Indian perfumes, involves a sophisticated method of co-distilling numerous botanical materials into sandalwood oil, creating rich, concentrated scents. With its sweet and slightly woodsy fragrance, the sacred Nag Champa incense highlights India's deep olfactory culture, further enriched by using flowers in rituals and aromatic spices in cuisine.




French Olfactory Culture: Artistic Expression and Luxury

Above: Grasse, France


French olfactory culture diverges significantly, treating perfume as an art form and luxury commodity. Since the 17th century, France, particularly Grasse, has been at the forefront of modern perfumery. The development of intricate perfume compositions, such as the iconic Chanel No. 5 and Guerlain's Shalimar, reflects French perfumery's creative and technical sophistication, which combines essential oils, absolutes, and synthetics in complex blends.



The comparison of Japanese, Indian, and French scent cultures reveals how olfactory practices shape and are shaped by cultural contexts.


From the contemplative subtlety of Japanese Kodo and the spiritual richness of Indian ittar to the artistic sophistication of French perfumery, scent plays a profound role in cultural expression. This exploration is merely an introduction to a vast and intricate topic, highlighting the cultural significance of olfactory practices across the globe.



I encourage you to delve into these three captivating scent cultures, each offering a unique perspective on the sensory interaction with nature, society, and spirituality.



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